The definition of sustainable development is the ability of mankind to live fairly respecting natural systems, which are the sources of the resources we use, without exceeding their capacity to absorb the waste produced by our activities, especially the industrial ones.
In September 2015, the Governments of the 193 ONU member countries signed the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, in order to define the parameters to be met to optimize the development of human societies from an environmental point of view.
The programme is divided into 17 objectives that the world has committed itself to achieve in 15 years:
- No poverty
- Zero hunger
- Good health and well-being
- Quality education
- Gender equality
- Clean water and sanitation
- Affordable and clean energy
- Decent work and economic growth
- Industry, innovation and infrastructure
- Reduce inequality
- Sustainable cities and communities
- Responsible consumption and production
- Climate action
- Life below water
- Life on land
- Peace, justice and strong institutions
- Partnership for the goals
Objective N°11 focuses on “Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable“; in particular point 11.4 states: “Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage“.
Sustainable Tourism and Ecotourism
During 2018, Europe will celebrate its cultural heritage at European, national, regional and local levels. The accession of European states to the European Year of Cultural Heritage is closely linked to the enhancement of sustainable and responsible tourism. In particular: Sustainable Tourism meets the needs of both travellers and host regions, taking care to protect and improve opportunities for the future.
“In addition to mass tourism, “slow” travel formulas are being added, which identify the Italian way of life and sustainability as the first requirement for holidays in our territory”. Giovanni Bastianelli, executive director of Enit – National Tourism Agency (Italy).]
Ecotourism is also part of this area of intervention, but also cultural tourism and heritage, deeply linked and attentive to history, local culture and its enhancement, as well as sustainability and accessibility in travel, the acquisition of the atmosphere of places, the suggestion evoked, the context of experience.
Every form of tourism by its very nature implies the movement of tourists from their source to the destination; tourism and mobility are therefore deeply interconnected.
The environmental impact caused by tourists is often very high, as confirmed by the data of Eea – the European Environment Agency: according to a study of 2015 updated in November 2016, for example: air transport in the EU is one of the most responsible sectors for greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The same report shows that vehicle mobility still remains one of the most important air pollutants.
Mobility needs to be “smarter” in order to pursue environmental improvement. Reconciling mobility and tourism is an objective that can be achieved through the adoption of specific technologies such as Internet of Thinghs, Social Network, Open Data and Geo-fencing.
Very often, information on electric mobility and, more generally, on environmentally friendly sources is not linked to tourist information that can improve traveler’s experience.